184 VEUDICT OX IXDIA Japanese. To quote Dr. Ambedkar, who certainly should know : ' It is like a race in armaments between two hostile nations. If the Hindus have the Benares University, the Muslims must have the Aligarh University; if the Hindus start one movement the Muslims launch another; if the Hindus have the R.S.S.1 the Muslims reply by organizing the Khaksars.2 This race in social armament and equipment is run with the determination and apprehension of nations which are 011 the war path. The Muslims fear that the Hindus are subjugating them ; the Hindus feel that the Muslims are engaged in reconquering them. Both appear to be preparing for war.*3 A longing to live together ? So far we have principally considered the Muslims* insistence on then: difference from the Hindus. But in spite of Gandhi\ perpetual theme song of the unity of 'India' and the common nationality of 'Indians,' there are vast bodies of Hindu opinion that are equally insistent on the differences between Hindus and Muslims. Here, for example, is the typical viewpoint of Hindu orthodoxy as represented by the Mahasabha, a powerful political party which contains many of the best brains of right wing Hinduism. In a recent presidential address, Mr. V. D. Savarkar aroused great applause by asserting: *In India we Hindus are marked out as an abiding Nation by ourselves. Not only do we own a common fatherland, a territorial unity, but what is scarcely found anywhere else in the world, we have a common Holy Land which is identified with our common fatherland. Our Patriotism therefore is doubly sure. We have common affinitiesócultural, religious, historical, linguistic, and racial, which through the process of countless centuries of associa- tion, have moulded us into a homogeneous Nation. The Hindus are no treaty nationóbut an organic national being.'4 Where, precisely, do the Muslims fit into this somewhat exclusive picture ? The answer, of course, is that they don't. The Mahasabha neither likes them, wants them, nor acknowledges them. As far * Hindu Volunteer Corps. 3 Muslim Volunteer Corps. * Thoughts on Pakistan, p. 242. * Speech at Calcutta Session of Hindu Mahasabha, December 1939.